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Intrapersonal Factors Promoting Diversity Tolerance (2 CE Credits)

Understanding factors that promote diversity tolerance is crucial in an increasingly globalized society. Earn 2 CE credits for reading an interesting journal article by Butrus and Witenberg. The article presents an empirical study that demonstrates the importance of considering personality factors as differential predictors of tolerance regarding beliefs, speech, and actions. A Certificate of Completion follows reading the article (Butrus, N., & Witenberg, R. T. [2013]. Some personality predictors of tolerance to human diversity: The roles of openness, agreeableness, and empathy. Australian Psychologist, 48, 290-298. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-9544.2012.00081.x) and passing an online multiple choice test. Please contact the Director ( for help in accessing the article. Introductory level. This course may be applied to the Certificate of Advanced Study in Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy if desired. $21.


Course Objectives for Intrapersonal Factors Promoting Diversity Tolerance

This journal article is offered as an introductory level course.  As a result of this learning activity, the participant will be able to:

  • list three behavioral dimensions that make up the construct of tolerance,
  • list three personality/dispositional factors found empirically to predict ethnic/racial tolerance,
  • identify the dispositional factor found empirically to be most directly predictive of tolerance, and
  • describe an educational and/or public policy implication for the findings.


Course and Program Details for Intrapersonal Factors Promoting Diversity Tolerance



Diversity Tolerance and Respect for Others

Diversity ToleranceThis CE course on intrapersonal factors promoting diversity tolerance may be applied to our Certificate of Advanced Study in Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy if desired.

The importance of diversity tolerance and respect for other cultures, religions, and ethnicities is receiving attention with an increased sense of urgency.  Terrorist threats, genocidal wars, and hate crimes are part of the daily news, while, globally, distances are ever-shrinking and people with diverse backgrounds must cooperate for survival.  Exposing people to diverse others has been found to be helpful in many cases, but at times has led to an increase in prejudice instead.  This article presents an empirical study to test the roles of several intrapersonal factors–openness, agreeableness, and dispositional empathy–as potential predictors of diversity tolerance in university students. 

The study creatively addressed the complex constructs.  First, what is meant by diversity tolerance is complex.  Diversity tolerance is not merely the opposite of prejudice.  Diversity tolerance may involve acceptance of others’ diverse beliefs, speech, and/or actions, each of which may be determined by different factors.  A person high in empathy may be tolerant of others’ intolerant beliefs, for example, as long as the beliefs are not acted upon in a negative way.  Conversely, a person high in the personality factor of openness may be especially sensitive to others’ belief systems.  Empathy is also a complex construct, with both cognitive and affective components.  It may be surmised that cognitive empathy (i.e., perspective-taking) may promote tolerance, but how important is it relative to such affective components as empathic concern? 

In the study described in this article, over 100 university students responded to vignettes that described accepting and intolerant beliefs, speech, and actions.  They also completed personality assessments of their openness and agreeableness and a measure of dispositional empathy.  Openness, agreeableness, and various aspects of empathy (perspective-taking, empathic concern, and personal distress) were found differentially to predict various aspects of diversity tolerance.   

The findings could have important implications.  More research is needed to continue to identify factors that may be important to address in designing successful interventions.  This study represents a valuable step in this direction.


Authors and Instructor for Intrapersonal Factors Promoting Diversity Tolerance

The article was authored by psychologists Ninawa Butrus, PhD and Rivka Witenberg, PhD, who are both affiliated with Australian Catholic University and have published extensively in the area. Marylie W. Gerson, PhD selected the article and prepared the course description and learning assessment for it.

Dr. Gerson received her PhD from Princeton University and has taught extensively at undergraduate, graduate, and post-doctoral levels for several decades. She is a long-standing member of the American Psychological Association, is a psychology professor emeritus at California Lutheran University, and maintains an active clinical practice as a licensed psychologist. Tolerance and openness to diversity have been particular research interests of hers for many years, and have been the topic of a number of her publications (e.g., Gerson & Neilson, 2014) and national conference presentations. She was twice nominated as Diversity Professor of the Year and has served as a mentor for underrepresented first year students at California Lutheran University, an Hispanic Serving Institution (HSI). Her empirically-based program to build resilience in young adults (Gerson & Fernandez, 2013) has been used with underrepresented and minority students, and she has conducted empirical research on the roles of culture and ethnicity as they may impact the predictors of resilience and life satisfaction in adults (e.g., Gerson, Beeson, & Towe, 2021; Towe, Gerson, & Beeson, 2021).

Please contact the Director ( if you would like help in accessing the article.


CE Credits for Intrapersonal Factors Promoting Diversity Tolerance

This course earns 2 continuing education credits. The Institute of Advanced Psychological Studies is approved by the American Psychological Association to sponsor continuing education for psychologists. The Institute of Advanced Psychological Studies maintains responsibility for this program and its content.

APA Approved Sponsor


Conflicts of Interest or Commercial Support

There is no commercial support or other potential conflicts of interest for this program, presentation, or instructor.


Commitment to Diversity and Accessibility

We are committed to respecting diversity in all of its forms, including age, gender, gender identity, sexual orientation, race, ethnicity, culture, national origin, language, socioeconomic status, religion, and disability. We also strive to make all of our activities accessible to individuals with special needs or disabilities. Please contact the Director at if you ever have any questions or concerns regarding any of our programs.


Sources and Relevance

Our programs and teaching methods are supported by current, empirically-based scientific literature, and are designed to provide continuing education that is relevant to psychological practice, education, and/or research, so that psychologists may maintain and expand their ability to serve the public and contribute to the profession.


Target Audience for Intrapersonal Factors Promoting Diversity Tolerance

Our courses are designed for postdoctoral-level psychologists; this course is an introductory-level course. All mental health professionals, educators, and researchers have a variety of educational backgrounds and needs—if you have any questions about whether this course could benefit you and/or would be appropriate for your level of training, please do not hesitate to contact us. You may contact the Director directly at with any questions or concerns.


Course Schedule

This course will be available to you 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, so you will be able pace yourself in a manner that is comfortable for you.


Cost and Refund/Cancellation Policy

The cost of the course is noted below. There no additional fees. If you or your institution do not subscribe to the journal, please contact the Director at for help in accessing the article. Your satisfaction is important to us. If you are not satisfied with a course, please let us know immediately—we will cancel your order and gladly offer you a full refund.


Course Format Summary for Intrapersonal Factors Promoting Diversity Tolerance

The course consists of the journal article below, available from the publisher.

Butrus, N., & Witenberg, R. T. (2013). Some personality predictors of tolerance to human diversity: The roles of openness, agreeableness, and empathy. Australian Psychologist, 48, 290-298. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-9544.2012.00081.x.  

If you need assistance in accessing the article, please contact our Director at

An online multiple choice test and Certificate of Completion are provided for 2 CE credits.  Introductory level.  This course may be applied to our Certificate of Advanced Study in Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy if desired.  $21.

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