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What Is Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy?

Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy

Psychoanalytic PsychotherapyPsychoanalytic psychotherapy (also called psychodynamic psychotherapy) is a contemporary form of treatment for mental health issues that has evolved from its roots in psychoanalysis over the last 100+ years.

This form of treatment emphasizes a comprehensive understanding of the client (“patient”) as a person, as opposed to following a strictly symptom-oriented approach. By considering the importance of a person’s life history and their capacity to take ownership of their choices, psychodynamic therapy works toward long-term growth and change.

The patient develops an honest and personal understanding of who they are, what they desire from their lives, and how they can effectively pursue these goals. While gaining insight, understanding, and acceptance, the patient also develops improved interpersonal skills vis-à-vis their relationship with the therapist. Research has shown that the therapeutic relationship (alliance) is a key factor in any psychotherapeutic success (Wampold et al., 1997). As a microcosm of the patient’s life, the therapeutic relationship has the unique potential of promoting an exploration of sensitive and important questions that may not be possible in any other context. Likewise, the therapist’s focus is determined by the best interests of the patient. The specifics of psychoanalytic psychotherapy are unique to the person as are the goals of the treatment. Overall, the intent is for the therapist to help the patient enhance their life with minimum conflict and stress, while also maximizing their sense of self-efficacy.

Are psychoanalytic therapies really all about sex, mothers, and toilet training?

There are a lot of misconceptions and myths about psychoanalytic theory and psychodynamic therapy. The approach views the person both historically and in terms of their present life. Scientific research has confirmed the importance of early childhood experience and the quality of early relationships as determining factors for shaping personality (Shedler, 2010). What makes each of us unique is how we have navigated the trials and challenges in our histories.

From a psychodynamic perspective, sex is a broad concept that encompasses all of a person’s biological predispositions. The importance of understanding sexuality is largely to recognize the basic life drives and needs. Over time and maturation, these drives differentiate into the pursuit of pleasure, comfort, love, and personal identity. Mothers, of course, typically provide our first experience of love and acceptance and set the prototype for all subsequent intimate relationships. And, while toilet training may seem like a strange event for extensive concern, it represents another prototypical experience regarding socialization. Toilet training may be illustrative of the quality of a child’s experience with being socialized into the standards and expectations of the culture. Most importantly, at the time psychoanalysis was being created, toilet training was an indicator of harsh and punitive child-rearing practices. So, while out of context, these concepts can sound bizarre or archaic, they have come to be recognized as important metaphors for describing a young person’s challenges with the world.

Will a psychoanalytic psychotherapist offer advice or solutions for problems?

In most cases people are intelligent and resourceful enough to solve their life’s problems, but may be blocked by fears, thoughts, and memories that are obstacles. In psychoanalytic therapy, patients learn to identify those obstacles and explore what can be done to move beyond them. A person’s strengths and creativity are built upon so that expertise in living becomes part of the patient’s skill set.

How long does psychoanalytic psychotherapy take?

Psychoanalytic psychotherapy is not time-limited. The length of therapy is a mutually determined issue, based on the patient’s needs and desires. As everybody has different needs and issues to consider, it would be presumptuous to dictate how long a therapeutic process should take. On the other hand, the therapist recognizes and addresses when therapy is no longer necessary or counter to a person’s needs. The goal of any effective psychotherapy is to become no longer necessary.

Who should seek psychoanalytic psychotherapy?

People best suited for this form of therapy are those with a sincere interest in knowing themselves better. The prospective patient should be willing to examine their thoughts, actions, and emotions honestly and openly in a trusted relationship with a qualified professional. While “quick-fixes” are not typical or even the intent of this form of therapy, many patients find significant improvement within weeks of beginning treatment.

Additional Resources

For more information on the basics of psychoanalytic psychotherapy, see the online course Classical Psychoanalytic Theory.

References

Shedler, J. (2010). The efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy. American Psychologist, 66(2), 98-109.

Wampold, B. E., Modin, G., Moody, G., Stitch, F., Benson, K., & Ahn, H. (1997) A meta-analysis of outcome studies comparing bona fide psychotherapies: Empirically “all must have prizes”. Psychological Bulletin, 122, 203-215.

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